The effects of self-talk on free throw performance and the level of anxiety among male novice basketball players

Mohd Saufi Dali, Vincent A. Parnabas


The present study has been conducted to investigate the effects of self-talk on free throw performance and the level of anxiety among male novice basketball players. Forty-eight (48) male novice basketball players (22.27 ± 1.47 years) was selected. The participants were assigned into four matched groups of twelve (12) participants: instructional self-talk (IST), motivational self-talk (MST) and the combination of instructional and motivational self-talk (CIMST) and control. Throw accuracy and anxiety’s level were measured on a 5-point scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults (STAI). Training protocol contains a pre-test and post-test to indicate the intervention effect on anxiety level and free throw performance. The participants compete against each other to get the highest score in post free throw performance. The data were analyzed by using mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA). The finding showed that state and trait anxiety level of post-intervention was significantly lower than pre-intervention in all groups (p<.05). The results of free throw performance showed the instructional self-talk intervention group was significantly improved from pre-intervention to post-intervention followed by the combination of instructional and motivational self-talk intervention group, motivational self-talk intervention group and control group (p<.05). However, there was no significant differences in anxiety level and free throw performance among all groups (p>.05). Therefore, it is recommended that self-talk can be used to enhance the free throw performance and reduce the anxiety’s level for the novice athletes. 


Self-talk; anxiety; free throw performance; novice athletes

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