Using Wireless Pedometers to Measure Children’s Physical Activity: How Reliable is the Fitbit Zip?

Tingting Xu, Erik Jon Byker, Monica Rae Gonzales

Abstract


The purpose of this study is to examine the reliability of wireless pedometers in measuring elementary school children’s physical activity. Activity measurement using a wireless pedometer Fitbit ZipTM was compared to activity measurement using Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 for a group of randomly selected 25 children in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Fitbit ZipTM wireless pedometers were found to have an appropriate degree (Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994) of accuracy and reliability compared to the Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 pedometer. The Fitbit ZipTM wireless pedometer collected more step counts than the Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 pedometer; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Participants reported that they preferred wearing the Fitbit ZipTM to the Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 because the Fitbit ZipTM was more comfortable to wear and less likely to fall off. Participants also reported being more motivated to move while wearing the Fitbit ZipTM.


Keywords


Elementary school; physical activity; physical education; wireless pedometry

Full Text:

PDF

References


Barfield, J. P, Rowe, D. A., & Michael, T. (2004). Interinstrument consistency of the Yamax Digi-Walker in elementary school children. Measurement Physical Education and Exercise Science, 8(2), 109-116.

Bassett Jr, D. R., Ainsworth, B. E., Leggett, S. R., Mathien, C. A., Main, J. A., Hunter, D. C., & Duncan, G. E. (1996). Accuracy of five electronic pedometers for measuring distance walked. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28(8), 1071-1077.

Beetham, H. & Sharpe, R. (2013). Rethinking pedagogy for a digital age: Designing for 21st century learning. (Eds.). routledge.

Bravata, D. M., Smith-Spangler, C., Sundaram, V., Gienger, A. L., Lin, N., Lewis, R., & Sirard, J. R. (2007). Using pedometers to increase physical activity and improve health: a systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Association, 298(19), 2296-2304.

Clemes, S. A. & Biddle S. J. (2013). The use of pedometers for monitoring physical activity in children and adolescents: measurement considerations. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 10(2), 249-262.

Crespo, C. J., Smit, E., Troiano, R. P., Bartlett, S. J., Macera, C. A., & Andersen, R. E. (2001). Television watching, energy intake, and obesity in US children: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 155(3), 360-365.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches, 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Press.

Crouter S. E., Schneider, P. L., Karabulut, M., & Bassett, D. R. (2003). Validity of 10 electronic pedometers for measuring steps, distance, and energy cost. Medicine Science Sports Exercise, 35(8), 1455-1460.

Dannecker, K. L., Sazonova, N. A., Melanson, E. L., Sazonov, E. S., & Browning, R. C. (2013). A comparison of energy expenditure estimation of several physical activity monitors. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 45(11), 2105-2112.

Dietz, W. H. & Gortmaker, S. L. (2001). Preventing obesity in children and adolescents. Annual Review of Public Health, 22, 337-353.

Eisenmann, J. C. & Wickel, E. E. (2005). Moving on land: an explanation of pedometer counts in children. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 93(4), 440-446.

Ertzberger, J. & Martin, F. (2016). Use of fitness bands by teachers in the classroom. Tech Trends, 60, 392–397. doi: 10.1007/s11528-016-0079-7

Fulton, J. E., Burgeson, C. R., Perry, G. R., Sherry, B., Galuska, D. A., Alexander, M. P., & Caspersen, C. J. (2001). Assessment of physical activity and sedentary behavior in preschool-age children: priorities for research. Pediatric Exercise Science, 13(2), 113-126.

Glaser, B. G. & Strauss A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago: Aldine.

Holstein, J. A. & Gubrium, J. (1995). The active interview. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Kohl III, H. W. & Cook, H. D. (2013). Educating the student body: Taking physical activity and physical education to school. (Eds.). Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Lee, J. M., Kim, Y., & Welk, G. J. (2014). Validity of consumer-based physical activity monitors. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 46(9), 1840-1848.

Lubans, D. R., Morgan, P. J., & Tudor-Locke, C. (2009). A systematic review of studies using pedometers to promote physical activity among youth. Preventative Medicine, 48(4), 307-315.

Miles, M. B. & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.

Nunnally, J. & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory, 3rd ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Rowe, D. A., Mahar, M. T., Raedeke, T. D., & Lore, J. (2004). Measuring physical activity in children with pedometers: Reliability, reactivity and replacement of missing data. Pediatric Exercise Science, 16(4), 343-354.

Schneider, P. L., Crouter, S. E., Lukajic, O., & Bassett, D. R. (2003). Accuracy and reliability of 10 pedometers for measuring steps over a 400-m walk. Medicine Science Sports Exercise, 35(10), 1779-1784.

Sirard, J. R., Trost, S. G., Pfeiffer, K. A., Dowda, M., & Pate, R. R. (2005). Calibration and evaluation of an objective measure of physical activity in preschool children. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 2(3), 345-357.

Tudor-Locke, C., Myers, A. M., & Rodger, N. W. (2000). Formative evaluation of the First Step Program: A practical intervention to increase daily physical activity. Canadian Journal of Diabetes Care, 24(4), 34-38.

Tudor-Locke, C., Williams, J. E., Reis, P., & Pluto, D. (2002). Utility of pedometers for assessing physical activity: convergent validity. Sports Medicine, 32(12), 795-808.

Vincent, S. D. & Pangrazi, R. P. (2002). Does reactivity exist in children when measuring activity levels with pedometers? Pediatric Exercise Science, 14(1), 56-63.

Xu, T., Byker, E. J., & Gonzales, M. R. (2017). Ready to learn: The impact of the Morning Blast physical activity intervention on elementary school students. Movement, Health, & Exercises, 6(1), 1-12. doi: 10.15282/mohe.v6i1.137




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15282/mohe.v6i2.157


Movement, Health & Exercise (MoHE) Journal

Innovative Manufacturing, Mechatronics & Sports Lab (iMAMS)
Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering
Universiti Malaysia Pahang
26600 Pekan
Pahang, MALAYSIA

Tel.: +609 424 6358

Email: admin@mohejournal.com

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15282/mohe