Reflecting on side-cutting variability on ACL injury risk: A case study

Muhammad Hamdan, Raja Mohammed Firhad Raja Azidin

Abstract


This case study aims to discuss a proposal for identifying anterior cruciate ligament injury (ACL) risk by observing the variability of side cutting kinematics with respect to the development of fatigue. One participant (n=1) sustained an ACL injury while performing a side-cutting task during the latter stages of a soccer match a few months after a recorded laboratory session. Data from his laboratory session were then compared to matched samples of seventeen healthy, uninjured participants (n=17). The injured participant was found to have performed his side-cutting task with a lower deviation than mean variability before the later stages of the second half of simulated soccer match-play. Over time, the participant performed side-cutting tasks with increasing variability in sagittal plane kinematics, suggesting that compensatory actions may have been implemented to facilitate the task execution. This elevated variability may be indicative of an increased risk of ACL injury. Further prospective investigation is warranted to gain a deeper understanding of how variabilities may play a role in task execution performance with respect to injury mechanisms.

Keywords


Anterior Cruciate Ligament, Side-cutting, Soccer, Fatigue, Biomechanics,Variability

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adlerton, A. K., Moritz, U., & Moe‐Nilssen, R. (2003). Forceplate and accelerometer measures for evaluating the effect of muscle fatigue on postural control during one‐legged stance. Physiotherapy Research International, 8(4), 187-199. https://doi.org/10.1002/pri.289

Agel, J., Evans, T. A., Dick, R., Putukian, M., & Marshall, S. W. (2007). Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate men's soccer injuries: National collegiate athletic association injury surveillance system, 1988-1989 through 2002-2003. Journal of Athletic Training (National Athletic Trainers' Association), 42(2), 270-277.

Barreira, P., Robinson, M. A., Drust, B., Nedergaard, N., Raja Azidin, R. M. F., & Vanrenterghem, J. (2016). Mechanical player load™ using trunk-mounted accelerometry in football: Is it a reliable, task-and player-specific observation? The Journal of Sports Sciences, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1229015

Blackburn, J. T., & Padua, D. A. (2008). Influence of trunk flexion on hip and knee joint kinematics during a controlled drop landing. Journal of Clinical Biomechanics, 23(3), 313-319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2007.10.003

Boden, B. P., Dean, G. S., Feagin, J. A., & Garrett, W. E. (2000). Mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Orthopedics, 23(6), 573-578.

https://doi.org/10.3928/0147-7447-20000601-15

Brophy, R., Silvers, H. J., Gonzales, T., & Mandelbaum, B. R. (2010). Gender influences: The role of leg dominance in acl injury among soccer players. The British Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(10), 694. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2008.051243

Cone, J. R., Berry, N. T., Goldfarb, A. H., Henson, R. A., Schmitz, R. J., Wideman, L., et al. (2012). Effects of an individualized soccer match simulation on vertical stiffness and impedance. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 26(8), 2027-2036. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31823a4076

Cortes, N., Greska, E., Kollock, R., Ambegaonkar, J., & Onate, J. A. (2013). Changes in lower extremity biomechanics due to a short-term fatigue protocol. Journal of Athletic Training, 48(3), 306-313. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-48.2.03

Cortes, N., Quammen, D., Lucci, S., Greska, E., & Onate, J. (2012). A functional agility short-term fatigue protocol changes lower extremity mechanics. The Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(8), 797-805. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2012.671528

Dingenen, B., Malfait, B., Nijs, S., Peers, K. H., Vereecken, S., Verschueren, S. M., et al. (2015a). Can two-dimensional video analysis during single-leg drop vertical jumps help identify non-contact knee injury risk? A one-year prospective study. Journal of Clinical Biomechanics, 30(8), 781-787.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2015.06.013

Dingenen, B., Malfait, B., Vanrenterghem, J., Robinson, M. A., Verschueren, S. M., & Staes, F. F. (2015b). Can two-dimensional measured peak sagittal plane excursions during drop vertical jumps help identify three-dimensional measured joint moments? The Knee, 22(2), 73-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.knee.2014.12.006

Ekstrand, J., Hägglund, M., & Waldén, M. (2011). Epidemiology of muscle injuries in professional football (soccer). American Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(6), 1226-1232. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546510395879

Falla, D., Gizzi, L., Tschapek, M., Erlenwein, J., & Petzke, F. (2014). Reduced task-induced variations in the distribution of activity across back muscle regions in individuals with low back pain. PAIN®, 155(5), 944-953.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2014.01.027

Faunø, P., & Wulff, J. B. (2006). Mechanism of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 27(1), 75-79.

https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2005-837485

Greig, M. (2009). The influence of soccer-specific activity on the kinematics of an agility sprint. The European Journal of Sport Science, 9(1), 23-33.

https://doi.org/10.1080/17461390802579129

Greig, M., & Walker-Johnson, C. (2007). The influence of soccer-specific fatigue on functional stability. Physical Therapy in Sport, 8(4), 185-190.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2007.03.001

Griffin, L. Y., Agel, J., Albohm, M. J., Arendt, E. A., Dick, R. W., Garrett, W. E., et al. (2000). Noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: Risk factors and prevention strategies. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 8(3), 141-150. https://doi.org/10.5435/00124635-200005000-00001

Hamdan, M., Ismail, S. I., Hassan, H., Ismail, H., Bukry, S. A., & Raja Azidin, R. M. F. (2017a). How reliable is kinovea vs. Templo in knee and hip kinematics assessment during side cutting tasks? Paper presented at the 4th Movement, Health & Exercise (MoHE), Johor, Malaysia.

Hamdan, M., Ismail, S. I., Hassan, H., Ismail, H., & Raja Azidin, R. M. F. (2017b). The effects of 45 min overground soccer match-play simulation on hip extension angles during anticipated side-cutting tasks. Paper presented at the XXVI Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics (ISB 2017), Brisbane, Australia.

Hamdan, M., Ismail, S. I., Hassan, H., Ismail, H., & Raja Azidin, R. M. F. (2018a). The effects of a 90-minute simulated soccer match-play on knee and hip kinematics. Movement, Health & Exercise (MoHE), 7(1). https://doi.org/10.15282/mohe.v7i1.164

Hamdan, M., Mohd Noh, S. N., Hasan, H., Ismail, H., & Raja Azidin, R. M. F. (2018b). Knee and hip extension responses to prolonged simulated soccer match-play: A 2d study. International Journal of Engineering and Technology (UAE), 7(4), 6-14. https://doi.org/10.15282/mohe.v7i1.164

Hamdan, M., Mohd Noh, S. N., Hassan, H., Ismail, S. I., Ismail, H., & Raja Azidin, R. M. F. (2017c). The reliability of the measurement of knee and hip extension in two-dimensional video analysis during anticipated side cutting tasks. Paper presented at the 4th Movement, Health & Exercise (MoHE), Johor, Malaysia.

Hashemi, J., Breighner, R., Chandrashekar, N., Hardy, D. M., Chaudhari, A. M., Shultz, S. J., et al. (2011). Hip extension, knee flexion paradox: A new mechanism for non-contact acl injury. The Journal of Biomechanics, 44(4), 577-585. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2010.11.013

Hawkins, R. D., Hulse, M. A., Wilkinson, C., Hodson, A., & Gibson, M. (2001). The associated football medical research programme: An audit of injuries in professional football. The British Journal of Sports Medicine, 35, 43-47.

https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.35.1.43

Herrero, H., Salinero, J. J., & Del Coso, J. (2014). Injuries among spanish male amateur soccer players: A retrospective population study. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 42(1), 78-85. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546513507767

Mclean, S. G., Lipfert, S. W., & Van Den Bogert, A. J. (2004). Effect of gender and defensive opponent on the biomechancs of sidestep cutting. Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(6), 1008.

https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000128180.51443.83

Raja Azidin, R. M. F., Sankey, S. P., Drust, B., Robinson, M. A., & Vanrenterghem, J. (2015). Effects of treadmill versus overground soccer match simulations on biomechanical markers of anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in side cutting. The Journal of Sports Sciences, 33(13), 1332-1341.

https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.990491

Raja Azidin, R. M. F., Sankey, S. P., Robinson, M. A., & Vanrenterghem, J. (2013). Treadmill versus overground soccer-specific fatigue: The effect on hamstring and quadriceps strength and frontal plane peak knee joint moments in side-cutting.

Ris, R., Holthuijsen, L., & Booij, N. (1999). A third‐generation wave model for coastal regions: 2. Verification. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 104(C4), 7667-7681. https://doi.org/10.1029/1998JC900123

Sankey, S. P., Azidin, R. M. F. R., Robinson, M. A., Malfait, B., Deschamps, K., Verschueren, S., et al. (2015). How reliable are knee kinematics and kinetics during side-cutting manoeuvres? Gait & Posture, 41(4), 905-911.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2015.03.014

Sanna, G., & O’connor, K. M. (2008). Fatigue-related changes in stance leg mechanics during sidestep cutting maneuvers. Journal of Clinical Biomechanics, 23(7), 946-954. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2008.03.065

Shultz, S. J., Schmitz, R. J., Cone, J. R., Copple, T. J., Montgomery, M. M., Pye, M. L., et al. (2013). Multiplanar knee laxity increases during a 90-min intermittent exercise protocol. Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 45(8), 1553-1561. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31828cb94e

Shultz, S. J., Schmitz, R. J., Cone, J. R., Henson, R. A., Montgomery, M. M., Pye, M. L., et al. (2015). Changes in fatigue, multiplanar knee laxity, and landing biomechanics during intermittent exercise. Journal of Athletic Training, 50(5), 486-497. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-49.5.08

Vanrenterghem, J., Venables, E., Pataky, T., & Robinson, M. A. (2012). The effect of running speed on knee mechanical loading in females during side cutting. The Journal of Biomechanics, 45(14), 2444-2449.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2012.06.029

Wahab, S. A., Ampofo-Boateng, K., Mohd Sharif, S. A., Othman, S. I. R., Abdul Aziz, R., Ismail, H., et al. (2015). Injury profiles in malaysia elite athletes. Paper presented at the International Conference on Movement, Health, and Exercise 2015, Penang, Malaysia.

Waldén, M., Hägglund, M., Werner, J., & Ekstrand, J. (2011). The epidemiology of anterior cruciate ligament injury in football (soccer): A review of the literature from a gender-related perspective. Journal of Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, 19(1), 3-10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-010-1172-7

Zambresky, L. (1989). A verification study of the global wam model: December 1987-november 1988: na.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15282/mohe.v9i1.400