Kesan umur relatif dalam kalangan atlet Malaysia dalam Sukan SEA Ke-29 Kuala Lumpur 2017

Ling JY Rong, Jeffrey Low Fook Lee

Abstract


Kesan Umur Relatif (KUR) ialah kesan daripada perwakilan lebih ramai atlet yang lebih tua secara relatif berbanding dengan atlet yang lebih muda dalam lingkungan umur yang sama. Atlet yang lahir pada awal tahun didapati mempunyai kelebihan dari segi fizikal dan psikologikal berbanding dengan atlet yang lebih muda secara relatif. Kajian ini bertujuan menyelidik kewujudan KUR dalam kalangan atlet yang mewakili Malaysia dalam Sukan SEA, Kuala Lumpur, 2017. Tarikh kelahiran atlet Malaysia (lelaki= 457 orang; perempuan=361 orang) diagihkan mengikut empat suku tahun (K1: Januari hingga Mac; K2: April hingga Jun; K3: Julai hingga September; K4: Oktober hingga Disember). Ujian Khi Kuasa Dua (χ²) mendapati bahawa terdapat KUR dalam kalangan atlet lelaki (K1: 33% berbanding K4: 21%) tetapi tiada dalam kalangan atlet perempuan. Namun untuk pemenang pingat, lebih ramai atlet didapati lahir pada suku tahun pertama untuk atlet lelaki (K1:32%) dan suku tahun kedua untuk atlet perempuan (K2: 36%). Pemilihan dan perkembangan atlet elit Malaysia juga tidak terlepas dari kesan umur relatif.

References


Albuquerque, M. R., Franchini, E., Lage, G. M., Da Costa, V. T., Costa, I. T., & Malloy-Diniz, L. F. (2015). The relative age effect in combat sports: an analysis of Olympic Judo athletes, 1964–2012. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 121(1), 300-308.

Barnsley, R.H., Thompson, A.H., & Barnsley, P.E. (1985). Hockey success and birthdate: The relative age effect. Journal of the Canadian Association of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 51, 23 – 28.

Cobley, S., Baker, J., Wattie, N., & McKenna, J. (2009). Annual age-grouping and athlete development. A meta-analytical review of relative age effects in sport. Sports Medicine, 39, 235–256.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Côté J. & Lidor R. (2013). Conditions of children's talent development in sport. Reference and Research Book News, 28(2). Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/1322463904?accountid=13155.

Ford, P. R., & Williams, M. A. (2011). No relative age effect in the birth dates of award-winning athletes in male professional team sports. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82(3), 570-573.

Hancock, D. J., Adler, A. L., & Côté, J. (2013). A proposed theoretical model to explain relative age effects in sport. European Journal of Sport Science, 13(6), 630-637.

Hancock, D. J., Seal, K., Young, B. W., Weir, P. L., & Ste-Marie, D. M. (2013). Examining mechanisms that contribute to relative age effects in pre-pubescent female ice hockey players. Talent Development & Excellence, 5(2), 59-66

Hancock, D.J., Ste-Marie, D.M., & Young, B.W. (2013). Coach selections and the relative age effect in male youth ice hockey, Research Quarterley for Exercise and Sport, 84:1, 126-130

Hancock, D. J., Starkes, J. L., & Ste-Marie, D. M. (2015). The relative age effect in female gymnastics: A flip-flop phenomenon. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 46(6), 714-725.

Hancock, D. J., Young, B. W., & Ste-Marie, D. M. (2011). Effects of a rule change that eliminates body-checking on the relative age effect in Ontario minor ice hockey. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29, 1399-1406.

MacDonald, D.J., King, J., Côté, J., & Abernethy, B. (2009). Birthplace effects on the development of female athletic talent. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 12, 234–237.

Musch, J., & Grondin, S. (2001) Unequal competition, as an impediment to personal development: a review of the relative age effect in sport. Developmental Review, 21,147-167.

Nakata, H. & Sakamoto, K. (2011). Sex different in relative age effects among Japanese athletes. Perceptual & Motor Skills,115, 1, 166-170.

O'Neill, K. S., Cotton, W. G., Cuadros, J. P., & O'Connor, D. (2016). An Investigation of the Relative Age Effect amongst Olympic Athletes. Talent Development & Excellence, 8(1), 27-39.

Punita, M., & Low, J.F.L (2015). The Relative Age Effects among Malaysian Age Group Swimmers. Journal of Sports Science and Physical Education, Malaysia, 4(1), 1-8.

Smith, K.L., & Weir, P.L. (2013). An examination of the relative age effect in developmental girls’ hockey in Ontario. High Ability Studies, 24(2), 171-184.

Suppiah, P.K., Abdullah, M.R., Noordin, H., & Nazaruddin, M.N. (2013). Relative Age Effects Among Participants of the U12 Category of the Malaysian Schools Sports Council Athletics Championships. Coaching Journal. 1(1), 29-35.

Vincent, J., & Glamser, F. D. (2006). Gender differences in the relative age effect among US Olympic development program youth soccer players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24(4), 405-413.

Zimmermann de Oliveira, H., Borges Ribeiro Junior, D., Macedo Vianna, J., & Zacaron Werneck, F. (2017). Relative age effect in Brazilian Basketball Championship: Under 15 players. / Efeito da idade relativa no Campeonato Brasileiro de Basquete: Categoria sub-15. Brazilian Journal of Kinanthropometry & Human Performance, 19(5), 526-534.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15282/mohe.v9i1.410