Relative age effects among Malaysian athletes in 29th SEA Games Kuala Lumpur, 2017

Ling JY Rong, Jeffrey Low Fook Lee

Abstract


Abstract

 

Relative Age Effects (RAE) is the effect of over-representation of relatively older athletes compared to their younger peers within the in the same age cohort. It is believed, that those born in earlier have been found to have a better physical and psychological advantage compared to the later-born individuals in their teens. This study is aimed to investigate the prevalence of RAE among the athletes who represented Malaysia at the 2017 SEA Games in Kuala Lumpur. The birth months of the athletes (men = 463, women = 362) were analysed according to the quarterly distribution: (Q1: January to March; Q2: April to June; Q3: July to Sept; Q4: Oct to Dec). The Chi-Square goodness of fit (χ²) test revealed that the effect of RAE was prevalent for male athletes in the first quarter as compared to the fourth (Q1: 33% vs Q4: 21%); nonetheless, it is worth to note that no RAE was found among the female athletes. It was demonstrated from the study that amongst the medal winners, the male athletes born in the first quartile (32%) were significantly more than the other quartiles. Similarly, the same results were found among the female medal winners but in the second quartile (35%). Therefore, it could be concluded from the study that the selection of Malaysian SEA Games athletes was influenced by the relative age effects.

 

Keywords: Relative age effects, Malaysian athletes, SEA Games

 

Abstrak

 

Kesan Umur Relatif (KUR) ialah kesan daripada perwakilan lebih ramai atlet yang lebih tua secara relatif berbanding dengan atlet yang lebih muda dalam lingkungan umur yang sama. Atlet yang lahir pada awal tahun didapati mempunyai kelebihan dari segi fizikal dan psikologikal berbanding dengan atlet yang lebih muda secara relatif semasa remaja. Kajian ini bertujuan menyelidik kewujudan KUR dalam kalangan atlet yang mewakili Malaysia dalam Sukan SEA, Kuala Lumpur, 2017. Bulan kelahiran atlet Malaysia (lelaki= 463 orang; perempuan=362 orang) diagihkan mengikut empat suku tahun (K1: Januari hingga Mac; K2: April hingga Jun; K3: Julai hingga September; K4: Oktober hingga Disember). Ujian Khi Kuasa Dua (χ²) mendapati bahawa terdapat KUR dalam kalangan atlet lelaki (K1: 33% berbanding K4: 21%) tetapi tiada dalam kalangan atlet perempuan. Namun untuk pemenang pingat, lebih ramai atlet didapati lahir pada suku tahun pertama untuk atlet lelaki (K1:32%) dan suku tahun kedua untuk atlet perempuan (K2: 35%). Pemilihan dan perkembangan atlet elit Malaysia juga tidak terlepas dari kesan umur relatif.

Keywords


Kesan umur relatif, atlet Malaysia, Sukan SEA

Full Text:

PDF

References


Albuquerque, M. R., Franchini, E., Lage, G. M., Da Costa, V. T., Costa, I. T., & Malloy-Diniz, L. F. (2015). The relative age effect in combat sports: an analysis of Olympic Judo athletes, 1964–2012. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 121(1), 300-308. https://doi.org/10.2466/10.PMS.121c15x2

Barnsley, R.H., Thompson, A.H., & Barnsley, P.E. (1985). Hockey success and birthdate: The relative age effect. Journal of the Canadian Association of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 51, 23 – 28.

Cobley, S., Baker, J., Wattie, N., & McKenna, J. (2009). Annual age-grouping and athlete development. A meta-analytical review of relative age effects in sport. Sports Medicine, 39, 235–256. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200939030-00005

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Côté J. & Lidor R. (2013). Conditions of children's talent development in sport. Reference and Research Book News, 28(2). Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/1322463904?accountid=13155.

Ford, P. R., & Williams, M. A. (2011). No relative age effect in the birth dates of award-winning athletes in male professional team sports. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82(3), 570-573. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2011.10599790

Hancock, D. J., Adler, A. L., & Côté, J. (2013). A proposed theoretical model to explain relative age effects in sport. European Journal of Sport Science, 13(6), 630-637. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2013.762325

Hancock, D. J., Seal, K., Young, B. W., Weir, P. L., & Ste-Marie, D. M. (2013). Examining mechanisms that contribute to relative age effects in pre-pubescent female ice hockey players. Talent Development & Excellence, 5(2), 59-66.

Hancock, D.J., Ste-Marie, D.M., & Young, B.W. (2013). Coach selections and the relative age effect in male youth ice hockey, Research Quarterley for Exercise and Sport, 84(1), 126-130. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2013.762325

Hancock, D. J., Starkes, J. L., & Ste-Marie, D. M. (2015). The relative age effect in female gymnastics: A flip-flop phenomenon. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 46(6), 714-725.

Hancock, D. J., Young, B. W., & Ste-Marie, D. M. (2011). Effects of a rule change that eliminates body-checking on the relative age effect in Ontario minor ice hockey. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29, 1399-1406.

https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2011.593040

MacDonald, D.J., King, J., Côté, J., & Abernethy, B. (2009). Birthplace effects on the development of female athletic talent. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 12, 234–237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2007.05.015

Musch, J., & Grondin, S. (2001) Unequal competition, as an impediment to personal development: a review of the relative age effect in sport. Developmental Review, 21, 147-167. https://doi.org/10.1006/drev.2000.0516

Nakata, H. & Sakamoto, K. (2011). Sex different in relative age effects among Japanese athletes. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 115(1), 166-170.

https://doi.org/10.2466/10.05.11.PMS.115.4.166-170

O'Neill, K. S., Cotton, W. G., Cuadros, J. P., & O'Connor, D. (2016). An Investigation of the Relative Age Effect amongst Olympic Athletes. Talent Development & Excellence, 8(1), 27-39.

Punita, M., & Low, J. F. L (2015). The Relative Age Effects among Malaysian Age Group Swimmers. Journal of Sports Science and Physical Education, Malaysia, 4(1), 1-8.

Smith, K. L., & Weir, P. L. (2013). An examination of the relative age effect in developmental girls’ hockey in Ontario. High Ability Studies, 24(2), 171-184. https://doi.org/10.1080/13598139.2013.847357

Suppiah, P.K., Abdullah, M.R., Noordin, H., & Nazaruddin, M.N. (2013). Relative Age Effects Among Participants of the U12 Category of the Malaysian Schools Sports Council Athletics Championships. Coaching Journal, 1(1), 29-35.

Vincent, J., & Glamser, F. D. (2006). Gender differences in the relative age effect among US Olympic development program youth soccer players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24(4), 405-413. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410500244655

Zimmermann de Oliveira, H., Borges, D., Vianna, J., & Werneck, F. (2017). Relative age effect in Brazilian Basketball Championship: Under 15 players. / Efeito da idade relativa no Campeonato Brasileiro de Basquete: Categoria sub-15. Brazilian Journal of Kinanthropometry & Human Performance, 19(5), 526-534.

https://doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n5p526




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15282/mohe.v9i1.410