Analisis jumlah pengambilan kalori, kalsium dan protein serta hubungannya dengan kepadatan mineral tulang dalam kalangan warga tua

Feaizul Mohd Din, Soh Kim Geok, Nurul Huda Eskak, Siswantoyo M. Kes

Abstract


Tujuan: Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenalpasti perbezaan skor aktiviti fizikal, jumlah pengambilan kalori, kalsium dan protein serta hubungannya terhadap status kepadatan tulang warga tua di Rumah Seri Kenangan (RSK), Cheras. Kaedah: Reka bentuk kajian ini adalah kajian tinjauan deskriptif yang melibatkan 117 responden (L=71, P=46) yang tinggal di RSK, Cheras. Kajian ini menggunakan borang soal selidik yang telah diadaptasi daripada Topolski et al. (2006) untuk menentukan skor aktiviti fizikal dan Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) untuk mendapatkan maklumat jumlah pengambilan kalori, kalsium dan protein serta penggunaan mesin kuantitatif ultrasound (QUS-2™) untuk mengukur status kepadatan tulang. Analisis yang digunakan dalam kajian ini adalah analisis deskriptif, ujian-t tidak bersandar dan korelasi. Dapatan Kajian:  Analisis ujian-t tidak bersandar menunjukkan tidak terdapat perbezaan signifikan pada aras kesignifikalan 0.05 terhadap (a) skor aktiviti fizikal iaitu responden lelaki (M = 4.51, SP = 1.25) dan perempuan (M = 4.17, SP = 0.71), [ t(113) = 1.834, p = 0.07 ]. (b) pengambilan protein iaitu responden lelaki (M = 438.61, SP = 23.57) dan perempuan (M = 437.28, SP = 14.50), [ t(115) = 0.376, p = 0.708]. Sebaliknya, terdapat perbezaan signifikan ditunjukkan antara lelaki dan perempuan pada aras kesignifikalan 0.05 bagi variabel (a) pengambilan kalori iaitu responden lelaki (M = 3058.21, SP = 332.68) dan perempuan (M = 2420.26, SP = 246.76), [ t(115) = 11.16, p = 0.001. (b) pengambilan kalsium iaitu responden lelaki (M = 2783.96, SP = 141.32) dan perempuan (M = 3847.89, SP = 96.42), [ t(115) = -2.69, p = 0.008 ]. (c) status kepadatan tulang iaitu responden lelaki (M=─2.22, SP = 0.42) dan perempuan (M = ─2.04, SP = 0.20), [ t(108) = 3.11, p = 0.002 ]. Ujian korelasi menunjukkan tidak terdapat hubungan signifikan antara status kepadatan tulang dengan (a) skor aktiviti fizikal bagi responden lelaki (r = 0.024, p = 0.842) dan responden perempuan (r= 0.251, p = 0.092), (b) pengambilan kalori bagi responden lelaki (r = 0.062, p = 0.606) dan responden perempuan (r = ─0.221, p = 0.140) dan (c) pengambilan protein bagi responden lelaki ( r = -0.044, p = 0.718) dan responden perempuan (r = 0.238, p = 0.112).  Hubungan positif lemah dicatatkan di antara status kepadatan tulang dengan pengambilan kalsium bagi responden lelaki (r = 0.331, p = 0.026) manakala hubungan positif sederhana dicatat bagi responden perempuan (r = 0.465, p = 0.031). Kesimpulan: Kesedaran untuk melakukan aktiviti fizikal serta mengambil kalori, kalsium dan protein yang seimbang adalah perlu dalam kalangan warga tua untuk meningkatkan kualiti hidup mereka terutamanya dalam aspek kesihatan tulang. Pelbagai program boleh dirangka oleh pihak institusi penjagaan warga tua supaya warga tua dapat mengoptimumkan usia emas mereka dengan aktiviti fizikal yang bersesuaian serta pengambilan kalori, kalsium dan protein yang berpatutan, sekaligus dapat mengekalkan kesihatan tulang mereka.


Keywords


Skor Aktiviti Fizikal, Pengambilan Kalori, Pengambilan Kalsium, Pengambilan Protein, Status Kepadatan Tulang

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adami, S., Giannini, S., Giorgino, R., Isaia, G. C., Maggi, S., Sinigaglia, L., Filipponi, P., & Crepaldi, G. (2004). Effect of age, weight and lifestyle factors on calcaneal quantitative ultrasound in premenopausal women: the ESOPO study. Calcified Tissue International, 74: 317-321.

Agnes, M., Keith, S., Caroline, K., & Hugh, T. (1995). Bone mineral density in relation to medical and lifestyle risk factors for osteoporosis in premenopausal, menopausal and postmenopausal women in general practice. British Journal of General Practice, 45: 317-320.

Ahmad Tarmizi. (2016). Lelaki suka minum kopi daripada minum susu. Diakses pada 12 Ogos 2018 daripada http://www.utusan.com.my

Ang, Y. H., Au, S. Y. L., Yap, L. K. P., & Ee, C. H. (2006). Functional decline of the elderly in a nursing home. Singapore Medical Journal, 47(3): 219-224.

Azirah, T., & Suriah, A. R. (1992). Nutrient intake and anthropometric measurements of free living elderly. Malaysian Application Biology, 21(1): 15-21.

Baheiraei, A., Pocock, N. A., Eisman, J. A., Nguyen, N. D., & Nguyen, T.V. (2005). Bone mineral density, body mass index and cigarette smoking among Iranian women: implication for prevention. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorder, 6(34): 1-9.

Carol, N. M., Walter, R. F., Kevin, P. O., & William, J. E. (1992). Body composition in elderly men: Effect of dietary modification during strength training. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 40(2): 155–162.

Castaneda, C., Charnley, J. M., Evans, W. J., & Crim, M. C. (1995). Elderly women accommodate to a low protein diet with losses of body cell mass, muscle function, and immune response. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 62(1): 30-39.

Chan, K. M., Anderson, M., & Lau, E. M. C. (2003). Exercise interventions: defusing the world’s

osteoporosis time bomb. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 81(11): 827-830.

Chandrashekhar, T. S., Nizar, A. M. K., Mohammed, A. R. J., & Boo, N. Y. (2012). Physical activity and associated factors among young adults in Malaysia: An online exploratory survey. BioScience Trends, 6(3): 103-109.

Dawson-Hughes, B., & Harris, S. S. (2002). Calcium intake influences the association of protein intake with rates of bone loss in elderly men and women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 75(4): 773-779.

Dergance, J. M., Calmbach, W. L., Dhanda, R., Miles, T. P., Hazuda, H. P., & Mouton, C. P. (2003). Barriers to and benefits of leisure time physical activity in the elderly: differences across cultures. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 51: 863-868.

Doris Padmini Selvaratnam, Nor Aini Hj Idris, Norlaila Abu Bakar, & Ong Bee Kim. (2009). Kesan

Peningkatan Jangka Hayat Di Malaysia. Dalam Prosiding PERKEM IV, JILID 1: 305-315.

Epstein, L. H., Paluch, R. A., Consalvi, A., Riordan, K., & Scholl, T. (2002). Effects of manipulating sedentary behavior on physical activity and food intake. Journal of Pediatrics, 140(3): 334-339.

Felson, D. T., Zhang, Y., Hannan, M. T., Kannel, W. B., & Kiel, D. P. (1995). Calorie intake and bone mineral density in elderly men and women. American Journal of Epidemiology, 142(5): 485-492.

Foo, L. H., & Zaitun, Y. (2000). Perkaitan di antara pengambilan kalsium dan faktor-faktor gaya hidup dengan status kesihatan tulang di kalangan wanita selepas menopaus (relationship of calcium intake and lifestyle factors to bone health status among Postmenopausal Women). Mal J Nutr, 6: 75-95.

Gerdhem, P., Ringsberg, K. A. M., Kesson, K. A., & Obrant, K. J. (2003). Influence of muscle strength, physical activity and weight on bone mass in a population-based sample of 1004 elderly women. Osteoporosis International, 14: 768-772.

Graafmans, W. C., Bouter, L. M., & Lips, P. (1998). The influence of physical activity and fractures on ultrasound parameters in elderly people. Osteoporosis International, 8: 449-454.

Grainge, M. J., Coupland, C. A. C., Cliffe, S. J., Chilvers, C. E. D., & Hosking, D. J. (1998). Cigarette smoking, alcohol and caffeine consumption and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis International, 8: 355-363.

Hanan Mohamed Hassan Elsawahli. (2013). Determinants of Aged-Friendly Urban Neighbourhoods In Malaysia. (Tesis yang tidak diterbitkan). Universiti Malaya, Malaysia.

Harian Metro. (2012). Mengelak Osteoporosis Dengan Senaman Dan Pemakanan Yang Sihat. Diakses pada Februari 2016 daripada http://pmr.penerangan.gov.my/index.php/sosial/16259

Hashnan Abdullah. (2003). Osteoporosis ancam lelaki. Diakses pada 20 Mac 2018, daripada

http://ww1.utusan.com.my/utusan/info.asp?y=2003&dt=1005&pub=Utusan_Malaysia&sec=Kesihatan&pg=kn_01.htm#ixzz597EL4ux0

Heaney, R.P., & Layman, D.K. (2008). Amount and type of protein influence bone health. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87: 1567S-1570S.

Heldrup, S., Prescott, E., Serensen, T. A., Gottschau, A., Lauritzen, J. B., Schroll, M., & Gronback, M. (2000). Tobacco smoking and risk of hip fracture in men and women. International Journal of Epidemiology, 20: 253-259.

Hermizi, H., Hawa, M., & Sakinah, H. (2012). Bone resorption marker status of pre and postmenopausal Malay women in Kelantan and its corresponding risk factors. Sains Malaysiana, 42(8): 1191–1200.

Holroyd, C., Cooper, C., & Dennison, E. (2008). Effect of soy protein on bone metabolism in

postmenopausal Japanese women. Osteoporosis International, 11: 721-724.

International Osteoporosis Foundation. (2013). Know and reduce your risk of osteoporosis. Diakses pada Februari 2016 daripada http://www.iofbonehealth.org/sites/default/files/PDFs/know_and_reduce_your_risk_english.pdf.

Ismail, M. N., & Zawiah, H. (1991). Anthropometric assessment of adult Malaysians. Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Medical Research

Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia. (2010). Laporan ciri-ciri pendidikan dan sosial penduduk 2010. Kenyataan media daripada Pejabat Ketua Perangkaan Malaysia.

Joanna, K. (2007). Physical activity in the prevention of the most frequent chronic diseases: an analysis of the recent evidence. Asian Pacific J Cancer, 8: 325-338.

John, A. S. (2008). The use of calcium and vitamin D in the management of osteoporosis. Therapeutic and Clinical Risk Management, 4(4): 827–836.

Kei, M. N., & Bianchi, S. M. (2005). Gender differences in the effects of marriage, parenthood, and employment. Journal of theoretical Social Psychology, 66(2): 413-430.

Lew Sing Ing. (2005). Tahap aktiviti fizikal, jumlah penggunaan tenaga dan pengambilan diet di kalangan mahasiswa Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS). (Tesis master yang tidak diterbitkan). Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia.

Maria, A. J., Boot, A. M., Huibert, A. P., Krenning, E. P., & Sabine, M. P. F. (1997). Bone mineral density in children and adolescents: relation to puberty, calcium intake and physical activity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 82 (1): 57-62.

Massey, L. K. (2003). Dietary animal and plant protein and human bone health: a whole foods approach. Journal of Nutrition, 133: 862S-865S.

Mingguan Malaysia. (2008). Keperluan kalsium wanita. Diakses pada Februari 2016. Daripada http://www.utusan.com.my

Mohd Sharkawi Ahmad, Isa Naina Mohamed, Sabarul Afian Mokhtar, & Ahmad Nazrun Shuid. (2015). Review of the risk factor of osteoporosis in the Malaysian population. Research Updates in Medical Sciences (RUMeS), 3(1): 77– 82.

National Health and Morbidity Survey. (1996). Institute of Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia.

Nguyen, T. V., Kelly, P. J., Sambrook, P. N., GilBert, C., Pocock, N. A., & Eisman, J. A. (1994). Lifestyle factors and bones density in the elderly: implications for osteoporosis prevention. Journal of Bone Mineral Research, 9: 1339-1346.

Nordin, B. E. C. (1997). Calcium in health and nutrition. Food, Nutrition and Agriculture, 20: 13-23.

Oselame, C. D. S., Matos, O. D., Oselame, G. B., & Neves, E. B. (2016). Analysis of total calorie, calcium and protein intake and relationship with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Rev. Bras. Geriatr. Gerontol, 19(4):653-660.

Pate, R. R. (1995). Physical activity and exercise: a recommendation from the Centres for disease control and prevention of the American college of medicine. JAMA, 273: 402-406.

Pinheiro, M. M., Schuch, N. J., Genaro, P. S., Ciconelli, R. M., Ferraz, M. B., & Martini, L. A. (2009). Nutrient intakes related to osteoporotic fractures in men and women-the Brazilian Osteoporosis Study (BRAZOS). Nutr J, 8(6):1-8.

Prentice, A. (2013). Diet, nutrition and the prevention of osteoporosis. Public Health Nutrition, 7(1A): 227–243.

Rizzoli, R., & Bonjour, J. P. (2004). Dietary protein and bone health. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 19: 527-531.

Robert, G. C., Steven, R. C., Michael, C. N., Jean, S., Kristine, E. E., Thomas, M. V., & Kathleen, F. (1997). Calcium intake and fracture risk: results from the study of osteoporotic fractures. American Journal of Epidemiology, 145(10): 926-934.

Rolls, B. J., Fedoroff, I. C., & Guthrie, J. F. (1991). Gender differences in eating behavior and body weight regulation. Health Psychology, 10(2): 133-142.

Rosnah Abdul Rashid Shirlin. (2012). 75 peratus rakyat Malaysia tidak bersenam. Diakses pada 2 Februari 2018 daripada http://ww1.utusan.com.my/utusan/Dalam_Negeri/20121005/dn_27/75-peratus-rakyat-Malaysia-tidak-bersenam---Rosnah-Abdul-Rashid

Schousboe, J. T., Shepherd, J. A., Bilezikian, J. P., & Baim, S. (2013). Executive summary of the 2013 international society for clinical densitometry position development conference on bone densitometry. Journal of Clinical Densitometry, 16(4): 455-466.

Sharifah Rosida Syed Ali. (2012). Pengaruh faktor peribadi, sokongan sosial, tahap kesihatan dan agama ke atas warga tua produktif. (Tesis Master yang tidak diterbitkan). Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia.

Siti Aminah. (2018). Wanita lebih banyak minum susu berbanding lelaki. Diakses pada 12 Ogos 2018

daripada http://www.kosmo.com.my/k2/varia/wanita-lebih-banyak-minum-susu-berbanding-lelaki-1.708075

Suraya, I., Norimah, A. K., Oon, N. L., & Wan, Z. W. N. (2013). Perceived physical activity barriers related to body weight status and socio demographic factors among Malaysian men in Klang Valley. BMC Public Health, 13: 275.

Suriah, A. R., Zainorni, M. J., Shafawi, S., Mimie, S., Zarina, N., Wan Zainuddin, W. A., & Zalifah, W. A. (1996). Nutrient intake among elderly in Southern Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysia Journal of Nutrition, 2: 11-19.

Suzana, S., Dixon, R. A., & Earland, J. (1999). Development of a screening tool for detecting under nutrition and dietary inadequacy among rural elderly in Malaysia: simple indices to identify individuals at high risk. Int J Food Sci Nut, 50: 435-444.

Tee E Siong. (2000). Cegah Osteoporosis: kalsium diperlukan sepanjang hayat. Diakses pada 10 Julai 2018 daripada http://ww1.utusan.com.my/utusan/info.asp?y=2000&dt=1117&pub=utusan_malaysia&sec=Gaya_Hidup&pg=ls_02.htm

Topolski, T. D., Logerfo, J., Patrick, D. L., Williams, B., Walwick, J., & Patrick, M. B. (2006). The rapid assessment of physical activity (RAPA) among older adults. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3(4): A118.

Winnie Chee. (2000). Cegah Osteoporosis: kalsium diperlukan sepanjang hayat. Diakses pada 10 Julai 2018 daripada http://ww1.utusan.com.my/utusan/info.asp?y=2000&dt=1117&pub=utusan_malaysia&sec=Gaya_Hidup&pg=ls_02.htm

World Health Organization (2008). Age-Friendly Primary Health Care Centres Toolkit. Diakses pada 27 Disember 2016, 97-100 daripada http://www.who.int/ageing/publications/AF_PHC_Centretoolkit.pdf.

World Health Organization (WHO). (1994). Assessment of osteoporotic fracture risk and its role in screening for postmenopausal women. WHO Technical report series 843. Geneva: World Health Organization. Diakses pada 12 Januari 2017 daripada http://www.who.int/en?

World Health Organization (WHO). (1998). Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultant on Obesity. WHO, Geneva.

Zhong, Y., Okoro, C. A., & Balluz, L. S. (2009). Association of total calcium and dietary protein intakes with fracture risk in postmenopausal women: The 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Nutrition. 25(6):647-654.

Zuriati, I. (2003). Penilaian subjektif global (SGA) dan status fungsian di kalangan warga tua Melayu di kawasan luar bandar: indeks ringkas bagi pembentukan penyaringan risiko malpemakanan. (Tesis Sarjana yang tidak diterbitkan). Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15282/mohe.v8i2.360