Effects of windlass enhancing feature on kinematics and kinetics during propulsive stance phase of running

Onwaree Ingkatecha, Sirirat Hirunrat, Bavornrat Vanadurongwan, Sakesan Tongkhambanchong


The purposes of this study were to investigate and compare the range of motion changes and force production of the running footwear with and without windlass enhancing feature and barefoot on lower extremities during late stance phase of running. Fourteen healthy recreational rearfoot male runners (age 20.14+0.66 years, height 171.79+4.66 cm, and body weight 64.56+5.79 kg.) were recruited in the study. The three dimensional movement analysis and force production were collected by Motion analysis system and AMTI force platform, the data were calculated and analyzed by Visual 3D. The participants in barefoot and 2 types of footwear; the running footwear with and without windlass enhancing feature, started to run along the runway with speed at 3.5 m/s (range between 3.33-3.68 m/s) for 3 trials in each condition. The repeated measures Analysis of variance was used to analyzed. A Bonferroni post hoc test was conducted between conditions (p < .01). The results revealed that the ankle movement of barefoot and the running footwear without windlass enhancing feature were significantly different from the running footwear with windlass enhancing feature at the beginning but of barefoot was significantly different from the running footwear with and without windlass enhancing feature at the end of the late stance phase. The forefoot’s range of motion of barefoot and the running footwear without windlass enhancing feature were significantly different from the running footwear with windlass enhancing feature but the vertical ground reaction forces of the running footwear with and without windlass enhancing feature were not significantly different. Significant difference was found between the barefoot and the running footwear with windlass enhancing feature in force production.


Windlass enhancing feature, Running, Propulsive stance phase


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15282/mohe.v8i2.334