Effects of windlass enhancing feature on kinematics and kinetics during propulsive stance phase of running

Onwaree Ingkatecha, Sirirat Hirunrat, Bavornrat Vanadurongwan, Sakesan Tongkhambanchong

Abstract


The purposes of this study were to investigate and compare the range of motion changes and force production of the running footwear with and without windlass enhancing feature and barefoot on lower extremities during late stance phase of running. Fourteen healthy recreational rearfoot male runners (age 20.14+0.66 years, height 171.79+4.66 cm, and body weight 64.56+5.79 kg.) were recruited in the study. The three dimensional movement analysis and force production were collected by Motion analysis system and AMTI force platform, the data were calculated and analyzed by Visual 3D. The participants in barefoot and 2 types of footwear; the running footwear with and without windlass enhancing feature, started to run along the runway with speed at 3.5 m/s (range between 3.33-3.68 m/s) for 3 trials in each condition. The repeated measures Analysis of variance was used to analyzed. A Bonferroni post hoc test was conducted between conditions (p < .01). The results revealed that the ankle movement of barefoot and the running footwear without windlass enhancing feature were significantly different from the running footwear with windlass enhancing feature at the beginning but of barefoot was significantly different from the running footwear with and without windlass enhancing feature at the end of the late stance phase. The forefoot’s range of motion of barefoot and the running footwear without windlass enhancing feature were significantly different from the running footwear with windlass enhancing feature but the vertical ground reaction forces of the running footwear with and without windlass enhancing feature were not significantly different. Significant difference was found between the barefoot and the running footwear with windlass enhancing feature in force production.


Keywords


Windlass enhancing feature, Running, Propulsive stance phase

References


Arndt, A., Lundgren, P., Liu, A., Nester, C., Maiwalk, C., Jones, R., Lundberg, A., & Wolf, P. (2013). The effect of a midfoot cut in the outer sole of a shoe on intrinsic foot kinematics during walking. Footwear Science, 5(1), 63-69.

Boyer, K. A., & Andriacchi, T. P. (2009). Changes in running kinematics and kinetics in response to a rockered shoe intervention. Clinical Biomechanics, 24, 872-876.

Bramble, D. M., & Lieberman, D. E. (2004). Endurance running and the evolution of Homo. Nature, 423, 345–352.

Burnfield, J. M., Few, C. D., Mohamed, O. S., & Perry, J. (2004). The influence of walking speed and footwear on plantar pressures in older adults. Clinical Biomechanics, 19, 78-84.

Cham, M. B., & Safaeepour, Z. (2015). The effect of rocker shoe on the ground reaction force parameters in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Iranian Rehabilitation Journal, 13(1), 61-67.

Chen, C. H., Tu, K. H., Liu, C., & Shiang, T. Y. (2014). Effects of forefoot bending elasticity of running shoes on gait and running performance. Human Movement Science, 38, 163-172.

Chen, T. L.W., Sze, L. K. Y., Davis, I. S., & Cheung, R. T. H. (2016). Effects of training in minimalist shoes on the intrinsic and extrinsic foot muscle volume. Clinical Biomechanics, 36, 8-13.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Cronin, N. J., Barrett, R. S., & Carty, C. P. (2012). Long-term use of high-heeled shoes alters the neuromechanics of human walking. Journal of Applied Physiology, 112(6), 1054-1058.

Csapo, R., Maganaris, C. N., Seynnes, O. R., & Narici, M. V. (2013). On muscle, tendon and high heels. Journal of Experimental Biology, 213, 2582-2588.

Deneweth, J., McGinnis, R., Zernicke, R., & Goulet, G. (2015). Individual-specific determinants of successful adaptation to minimal and maximal running shoes. Footwear Science, 7(Suppl 1), S97-S99.

Divert, C., Mornieux, G., Baur, H., Mayer, F., & Belli, A. (2005). Mechanical comparison of barefoot and shod running. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 26, 593-598.

Dixon, S.J., Collop, A.C., & Batt, M.E. (2000). Surface effects on ground reaction forces and lower extremity kinematics in running. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 32(11), 1919-1926.

Dugan, S. A., & Bhat, K. P. (2005). Biomechanics and analysis of running gait. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 16, 603-621.

Fuller, J. T., Thewlis, D., Tsiros, M. D., Brown, N. A. T., & Buckley, J. D. (2015). The long-term effect of minimalist shoes on running performance and injury: design of a randomized controlled trial. BMJ Open, 5(8), 1-9.

Giandolini, M., Horvais, N., Farges, Y., Samozino, P., & Morin, J. B. (2013). Impact reduction through long-term intervention in recreational runners: midfoot strike pattern versus low-drop/low-heel height footwear. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 113(8), 2077-2090.

Giddings, V. L., Beaupre, G. S., Whalen, R. T., & Carter, D. R. (2000). Calcaneal loading during walking and running. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 32, 627-634.

Glover, B., & Glover, S.F. (1999). The Competitive Runner's Handbook, 2nd ed. US; Penguin group.

Hafstad, A. D., Boardman, N., Lund, J., Hagve, M., Wisloff, U., Larsen, T. S., & Aasum, E. (2009). Exercise-induced increase in Cardiac efficiency: the impact of intensity. Circulation, 120, S880.

Hansan, A. H., & Wang, C. C. (2010). Effective rocker shapes used by able-bodied persons for walking and fore-aft swaying: implications for design of ankle-foot prostheses. Gait Posture, 32, 181-184.

Hardin, E.C., Van Den Bogert, A.J., & Hamill, J. 2004. Kinematic adaptations during running: Effects of footwear, surface, and duration. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 36(5), 838-44.

Hart, P. M., & Smith, D. R. (2008). Preventing running injuries through barefoot activity. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 79(4), 50–53.

Hicks, J. H. (1954). The mechanics of the foot II. The plantar aponeurosis and the arch. Journal of Anatomy, 88, 25-30.

Hopson, M. M., McPoil, T. & Cornwall, M. W. (1995). Motion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint: reliability and validity of four measurement techniques. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 85, 198-204.

Hutchins, S., Bowker, P., Geary, N., & Richards, J. (2009). The biomechanics and clinical efficacy of footwear adapted with rocker profiles-evidence in the literature. Foot, 19, 165-170.

Keenan, G. S., Franz, J. R., Dicharry, J., Della Croce, U., & Kerrigan, D. C. (2011). Lower limb joint kinetics in walking: The role of industry recommended footwear. Gait Posture, 33, 350–355.

Landry, S. C., Nigg, B. M., & Tecante, K. E. (2010). Standing in an unstable shoe increases postural sway and muscle activity of selected smaller extrinsic foot muscles. Gait Posture, 32, 215-219.

Leardini, A., Benedetti, M. G., Berti, L., Bettinelli, D., Nativo, R., & Giannini, S. (2007). Rear-foot, mid-foot and fore-foot motion during the stance phase of gait. Gait Posture, 25, 453-462.

Lieberman, D. E., Venkadesan, M., Werbel, W. A., Daoud, A. I., D’Andrea, S., Davis, I. S., Mang’Eni, R. O., & Pitsiladis, Y. (2010). Foot strike patterns and collision forces in habitually barefoot versus shod runners. Nature, 463, 531-535.

Lin, S. C., Chen, C. P. C., Tang, S. F. T., Wong, A. M. K., Hsieh, J. H., & Chen, W. P. (2013). Changes in windlass effect in response to different shoe and insole designs during walking. Gait Posture, 37, 235-241.

Miller, E. E., Whitcome, K. K., Leiberman, D. E., Norton, H. L., & Dyer, R. E. (2014). The effect of minimal shoes on arch structure and intrinsic foot muscle strength. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 3(2), 74-85.

O’Connor, F.G., & Wilder, R.P. (2001). Textbook of running medicine. NY: Mc Graw-Hill.

Perl, D. P., Daoud, A. I., & Lieberman, D. E. (2012). Effects of footwear and strike type on running economy. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 44(7), 1335-1343.

Perry, J. (2010). Gait analysis; Normal and pathological function, 2nd ed. NY: Mc Graw-Hill.

Rixe, J. A., Gallo, R. A., & Silvis, M. L. (2012). The barefoot debate: can minimalist shoes reduce running-related injuries? Current Sports Medicine Reports, 11(3), 160–165.

Rothschild, C. E. (2012). Running barefoot or in minimalist shoes: evidence or conjecture? Strength & Conditioning Journal, 34(2), 1–10.

Roy, H., Bhattacharya, K., Deb, S., & Ray, K. (2012). Arch index: an easier approach for arch height (a regression analysis). Al Ameen Journal of Medical Sciences, 5, 137-146.

Taniguchi, M., Tateuchi, H., Takeoka, T., & Ichihashi, N. (2012). Kinematic and kinetic characteristics of Masai Barefoot Technology footwear. Gait Posture, 35, 567-572.

Van Gent, R. N., Siem, D., Van Middelkoop, M., Van Os, A. G., Bierma-Zeinstra, S. M., & Koes, B. W. (2007). Incidence and determinants of lower extremity running injuries in long distance runners: a systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 41, 469-480.

Van Middelkoop, M., Kolkmon, J., Van Ochten, J., Bierma-Zeinstra, S. M., & Koes, B. W. (2008a). Prevalence and incidence of lower extremity injuries in male marathon runners. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 18, 140-144.

Wu , W. L., Rosenbaum, D., & Su, F. C. (2004). The effects of rocker sole and SACH heel on kinematics in gait. Medical Engineering & Physics, 26, 639-646.

Zhang, S., Paquette, M. R., Milner, C. E., Westlake, C., Byrd, E., & Baumgartner, L. D. (2012). An unstable rocker-bottom shoe alters lower extremity biomechanics during level walking. Footwear Science, 4, 243–253.

Zhang, X., Paquette, M. R., & Zhang, S. (2013). A comparison of gait biomechanics of flip-flops, sandals, barefoot and shoes. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, 6(1), 45.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15282/mohe.v8i2.334