Jumping Performance and Lower Limb Kinematic Analysis Among Children with Down Syndrome

Wan Hazree Wan Zakaria, Hosni Hassan, Noor Azila Azreen Md Radzi

Abstract


This study investigated the jumping performance and lower limbs kinematics among boys with Down syndrome. The participants (n = 23) were required to perform standing broad jump test and their jumping performance was evaluated using Motor Skills Inventory for locomotor skills anal- ysis. In addition, the jumping performance was also recorded for lower limb kinematic analysis using 2-Dimensional video recording tools. Results revealed that 91.3% of the participants scored ‘Poor’ values of standing broad jump distances. Based on the Motor Skills Inventory analysis, five participants were grouped as ‘Rudimentary’, nine participants were ‘Functional’ and the other nine participants were ‘Mature’ level of motor development. Based on these three groups, further analysis was conducted on the lower limbs kinematics during jumping performance (three phases: take off, jump peak height and landing). Finding showed that there were no significant differences on lower limb kinematics between the groups during these three phases of jumping. Proper inter- vention strategies are needed in order to improve the jumping skills among children with Down syndrome.


Keywords


Children with Down Syndrome; Biomechanics; Jumping Performance; Kinematic Analysis; Motor Development; Motor Learning

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdullah, N. M., Hassan, A., Pilus, M. N., Fauzee, A., & Omar, M. S. (2018). Comparison of sports- specific test protocol and procedures to identify talent in goalball between students with blind and visual impairment:In Yacob N., Mohd Noor N., Mohd Yunus N., Lob Yussof R., Zakaria S. (eds). Proceedings of Regional Conference on Science Technology and Social Science (RCSTSS 2016). Springer, Singapore.

Baharuddin, M. Y., Hashim, A., & Salim, M. S. M. (2009). Motion analysis for different type of jumping. Paper presented at the International Conference on Applications and Design in Mechanical Engineering (ICADME 2009). Penang, Malaysia.

Capio, C. M., & Rotor, E. R. (2010). Fundamental movement skills among Filipino children with Down syndrome. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness, 8, 17-24. doi:10.1016/S1728- 869X(10)60003-2.

Castro-Piñero, J., Ortega, F. B., Artero, E. G., Girela-Rejón, M. J., Mora, J., Sjöström, M., & Ruiz, J. R. (2010). Assessing muscular strength in youth: Usefulness of standing long jump as a general index of muscular fitness. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24, 1810-1817. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181ddb03d.

Chen, Z., Ishii, Y., Wang, Y., & Watanabe, K. (2010). Developmental movement of standing long jump in elementary school children by kinematics analysis. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24.

Chow, J. Y., Koh, M., Davids, K., Button, C., & Rein, R. (2014). Effects of different instructional constraints on task performance and emergence of coordination in children. European Journal of Sport Science, 14, 224-232. doi:10.1080/17461391.2013.780097.

Fernandez-Santos, J. R., Gonzalez-Montesinos, J. L., Ruiz, J. R., Jiménez-Pavón, D., & Castro- Piñero, J. (2018). Kinematic analysis of the standing long jump in children 6- to 12-years-old. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 22, 70-78. doi:10.1080/1091367X.2017.1383913

Fernandez-Santos, J. R., Ruiz, J. R., Cohen, D. D., Gonzalez-Montesinos, J. L., & Castro-Piñero, J. (2015). Reliability and validity of tests to assess lower-body muscular power in children. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29, 2277-2285. doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000864.

Gallahue, D. L., Ozmun, J. C., & Goodway, J. (2006). Understanding Motor Development: Infants, children, Adolescents, Adults. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Gupta, S., Rao, B. K., & Sd, K. (2011). Effect of strength and balance training in children with Down's syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation, 25, 425-432. doi:10.1177/0269215510382929.

Hardy, L. L., Merom, D., Thomas, M., & Peralta, L. (2018). 30-year changes in Australian children’s standing broad jump: 1985–2015. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 21, 1057-1061. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2018.04.005.

Horita, T., Kitamura, K., & Kohno, N. (1991). Body configuration and joint moment analysis during standing long jump in 6-yr-old children and adult males. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 23, 1068 - 1077.

Hraski, M., Hraski, Ž., Mraković, S., & Horvat, V. (2015). Relation between anthropometric characteristics and kinematic parameters which influence standing long jump efficiency in boys and adolescents Collegium Antropologicum, 39, 47-55.

Lejčarova, A. (2008). Level of selected fitness abilities of pupils at practical elementary schools in relation to the aetiology of their intelelectual disability. Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis. Gymnica, 38, 45-54.

Limerick University Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences (n.d.). Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q) for Children. Limerick, Ireland. Retrieved September 21, 2017, from

https://www.ul.ie/pess/sites/all//files/PAR-Q%20Children.pdf

Mackala, K., Stodółka, J., Siemienski, A., & Ćoh, M. (2013). Biomechanical analysis of standing long jump from varying starting positions. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27, 2674-2684. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825fce65.

Malak, R., Kostiukow, A., Krawczyk-Wasielewska, A., Mojs, E., & Samborski, W. (2015). Delays in motor development in children with Down syndrome. Medical Science Monitor : International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research, 21, 1904-1910. doi:10.12659/MSM.893377.

Meegan, S., Maraj, B. K., Weeks, D., & Chua, R. (2006). Gross motor skill acquisition in adolescents with Down syndrome. Down's syndrome, Research and Practice : Journal of the Sarah Duffen Centre, University of Portsmouth, 9, 75-80. doi:10.3104/reports.298.

Mello, J. B., Nagorny, G. A. K., Haiachi, M. D. C., Gaya, A. R., & Gaya, A. C. A. (2016). Projeto Esporte Brasil: physical fitness profile related to sport performance of children and adolescents. Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano, 18, 658-666.

Nadzalan, A. M., Mohamad, N. I., Lee, J. L. F., & Chinnasee, C. (2018). Relationship between muscle architecture and badminton-specific physical abilities. Human Movement, 19(1), 44-50.

Uyanik, M., Bumin, G., & Kayihan, H. (2003). Comparison of different therapy approaches in children with Down syndrome. Pediatrics International, 45(1), 68-73. doi:10.1046/j.1442- 200X.2003.01670.x

Wang, W. Y., & Ju, Y. H. (2002). Promoting balance and jumping skills in children with Down syndrome. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 94, 443-448. doi:10.2466/pms.2002.94.2.443.

Werder, J. K., & Bruininks, R. H. (1988). Assessment, instructional planning and evaluation. In J. K. Werder (Ed.), Manual of Body Skills (pp. 84-85). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

Zimmerman, H. M. (1956). Characteristic likenesses and differences between skilled and non-skilled performance of standing broad jump. Research Quarterly. American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 27(3), 352-362. doi:10.1080/10671188.1956.10762011.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15282/mohe.v9i2.472