Amirah Zahiran, Muhammad Irwan Abdullah, Shazlin Shaharudin


This study was conducted to evaluate the differences of physiological and biomechanical variables during 2km rowing time trial on stationary versus dynamic ergometer. Ten state-level rowers (male: 6, female: 4) were voluntarily participated in the study. Two sessions of 2km time trial were conducted: one on a static ergometer while another on a dynamic ergometer. Data on oxygen consumption, blood lactate concentration, maximum heart rate, stroke rate, time to completion and lower limb angles at sagittal plane were collected and analysed during the tests. Paired T-test was used to compare the physiological and biomechanical variables across stationary and dynamic ergometer. Stroke rate, maximum heart rate, drive to recovery phase ratio and VO2max  showed statistically significant differences during 2km rowing time trial on stationary versus dynamic ergometer. Moreover, VO2max was inversely related with high correlation to time to completion of 2km rowing test on both ergometer. Height, body fat and VO2max are the major determinants of 2 km rowing time trial on stationary and dynamic ergometer. The outcomes from this study are important to enhance rowing performance especially for rowers.


biomechanics; ergometer; physiology; rowing


Barrett, R. S. & Manning, J. M. (2004). Relationships between rigging set-up, anthropometry, physical capacity, rowing kinematics and rowing performance. Sports Biomechanics, 3(2), 221–235.

Benson, A., Abendroth, J., King, D., & Swensen, T. (2011). Comparison of rowing on a Concept 2 stationary and dynamic ergometer. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 10(2), 267–227.

Bernstein, I. A. (2002).An ergonomic comparison of rowing machine designs: Possible implications for safety. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 36(2), 108–112.

Bourdin, M., Messonnier L., Hager J.P., & Lacour J.R. (2004) Peak power output predicts rowing ergometer performance in elite male rowers. International Journal Sports Medicine, 25, 368-373.

Caldwell J.S., McNair P.J., & Williams M. (2003). The effects of repetitive motion on lumbar flexion and erector spinae muscle activity in rowers. Clinical Biomechanics, 18, 704-711.

Carter J.E.L., & Heath B.H. (1984) Somatotyping: development and application. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cerne, T., Kamnik, R., Vesnicer, B, Gros, J.Z., & Munih, M. (2013). Differences between elite, junior and non-rowers in kinematic and kinetic parameters during ergometer rowing. Human Movement Science, 32, 691-707.

Cosgrove, M. J., Wilson, J., Watt, D., & Grant, S. F. (1999). The relationship between selected physiological variables of rowers and rowing performance as determined by a 2,000 m ergometer test. Journal Sports. Science. 17, 845–852.

Dawson, R. G., Lockwood, R. J., Wilson, J. D. & Freeman, G. (1998). The rowing Sources of variance and invariance in ergometer and on-the water performance. Journal Motor Behaviour, 30, 33-43.

DeRose, E. H., Crawford, S. M., Kerr, D. A., Ward, R., & Ross, W. D. (1989). Physique characteristics of Pan American Games lightweight rowers. International Journal Sports Medicine, 10(4): 292-297.

Hofmijster, M. J., Van Soest, a. J., & De Koning, J. J. (2006). Rowing skill affects power loss on a modified rowing ergometer. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 40(6), 1101–1110.

Holt, P.J., Bull, A. M., Cashman, P. M., & McGregor, A. H. (2003). Kinematics of spinal motion during prolonged rowing. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 24, 597-602.

Hunter, GR, Hilyer, J, and Forster, MA. (1993) Changes in fitness during 4 years of intercollegiate basketball. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 7(1), 26-29.

Ingham, S., G, Whyte., K, Jones., & A, Nevill. (2002). Determinants of 2,000 m rowing ergometer performance in elite rowers. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 88(3), 243–246.

Jensen, K., Johansen, L., & Seche,r N. H. (2001) Influence of body mass on maximal oxygen uptake: effect of sample size. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 84: 201-205

Klusiewicz, A., Faff, J., & Zdanowicz, R. (1999). Diagnostic value of indices derived from specific laboratory tests for rowers. Biology of Sport, 16(1), 39-50.

Kramer, J. F., Leger, A., Paterson, D.H., & Morrow, A. (1994) Rowing performance and selected descriptive, field, and laboratory variables. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, 19(2), 174-184.

Laursen, P. B., & Jenkins, D. G. (2002). The scientific basis for high-intensity interval training: optimising training programmes and maximising performance in highly trained endurance athletes. Sports Medicine. 32, 53-73.

Mandic, S., Quinney, H.A., & Bell, G.J. (2004). Modification of the Wingate anaerobic power test for rowing: Optimization of the resistance setting. International Journal Sports Medicine, 25, 409-414.

Mello, F.D.C., Bertuzzi, R., Franchini, E., & Robin, C. (2014). Rowing ergometer with the slide is more specific to rowers’ physiological evaluation. Research in Sports Medicine, 22(2), 136–146.

Mickelson, T. C., & Hagerman, F. C. (1982). Anaerobic threshold measurements of elite oarsmen. Medicine Science Sports Exercise, 14, 440-444.

Mikulic, P. (2011). Maturation to elite status: A six-year physiological case study of a world champion rowing crew. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 111, .

Riechman, S. E., Zoeller, R. F., Balasekaran, G., Goss, F. L., & Robertson, R. J. (2002). Prediction of 2000 m indoor rowing performance using a 30 s sprint and maximal oxygen uptake. Journal Sports Science, 20, 681-687.

Rodriguez, F. A. (1986). Physical structure of international lightweight rowers. In: Reilly T, Watkins J, Borms J, eds. Kinanthropometry III. London: E and FN Spon, 255–61.

Rossi, J., Piponnier, E., Vincent, L., Samozino, P., & Messonnier, L. (2015). Influence of ergometer design on physiological responses during rowing. International Journal Sports Medicine, 36, 947–951.

Secher, N. H., & Volianitis, S. S., (2007). Handbook of Sports Medicine and Science, Rowing. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub.

Secher, N.H. (1983). The physiology of rowing. Journal of Sports Sciences, 1(1), 23–53.

Shaharudin, S., & Agrawal, S., (2015). Muscle synergy of collegiate rowers during 6 min maximal rowing on fixed and slides ergometer. Journal of Medical and Bioengineering, 4(4): 263-269.

Shaharudin, S., Zanotto, D. & Agrawal, S., (2014a). Muscle synergies of untrained subjects during 6 min maximal rowing on slides and fixed ergometer. Journal Sports Science & Medicine, 13(4), 793–800.

Shaharudin, S., Zanotto, D. & Agrawal, S., (2014b). Muscle synergy during Wingate anaerobic rowing test of collegiate rowers and untrained subjects. International Journal of Sports Science, 4(5), 165-172.

Slater, G.J., Rice, A.J., Mujika, I., Hahn, A.G., Sharpe, K., & Jenkins, D.G, (2005). Physique traits of lightweight rowers and their relationship to competitive success. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39. 736-741.

So, R.C.H., Tse, M.A., & Wong, S.C.W. (2007). Application of surface electromyography in assessing muscle recruitment patterns in six-minute continuous rowing effort. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21(3), 724-730.

Soper, C. & Hume, P.A., (2004). Towards an ideal rowing technique for performance: The contributions from biomechanics. Sports Medicine, 34(12), 825–848.

Stallard, M. 1999. The challenge of rowers backache. Sport and Medicine, 53–55.

Steinacker , J. M., Lormes, W., Kellmann, M., Liu, Y., Reissnecker, S., Opitz-Gress, A., Baller, B., Günther, K., Petersen, K. G., Kallus, K. W., Lehmann, M., & Altenburg, D. (2000). Training of junior rowers before world championships. Effects on performance, mood state and selected hormonal and metabolic responses. Journal Sports Science Physical Fitness, 40, 327-335.

Webster, T. G., Gervais, P. L., Syrotuik, D. G., & Bell, G.J. (2006). The combined effects of 8-weeks aerobic and resistance training on simulated 2000-meter rowing performance and the related biomechanical and physiological determinants in men and women. Advanced Exercise Sports Physiology, 12(4), 135-143.

Yoshiga, C.C., & Higuchi, M. (2003). Oxygen uptake and ventilation during rowing and running in females and males. Scandinavian Journal Medicine Science Sports. 13, 359-363.