Aqua Zumba versus Aqua Jogging: Comparative effects on health parameters among obese middle age women

Sarina Md Yusof, Maisarah Shari, Zulkifli Kadir, Aishah Adam, Teh Lay Kek, Suhana Aiman, Norizzati Mohd Idris, Mastura Johar


Background:Obesity is major contributor to diseases and mortality. Constant weight loss significantly reverses the diseases related to obesityand prolonged human life expectancy. Limited scientific evidence comparing the effectiveness between Aqua Zumba® Fitness program and aqua jog in obese women. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects between 12 weeks of Aqua Zumba® Fitness and aqua jog on health parameters among middle-age women.Methods:A total of sixty previously sedentary obese women (BMI >30 kg/m2), aged 40-59 years old were randomized to either Aqua Zumba® Fitness (AZ, n=20), aqua jog (AJ, n=20) or control group (C, n=20). Exercise groups were involved in 12-weeks of different aqua exercise programmes, 3 times per week, 60 minutes per session, with the intensity of 50-75% of maximum heart rate. Body mass (BM), lean mass (LM), body fat percentage (BF%), abdominal fat (WC), upper and lower body strength (UBS and LBS), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and flexibility were measured at baseline (week-0) and post-exercise intervention (week-13). Result:Both trained groups demonstrated significant changes (p<0.05) in all selected health parameters following 12 weeks of exercise programmes. However, this study found that AZ group produced significant superior change on the improvement of LM, WC, UBS and LBS (P<0.05) compared to AJ group. Conclusion:  As a result, Aqua Zumba® Fitness elicits better improvement on health among obese middle-age women compared aqua jog.


aqua exercise, obesity, health related fitness

Full Text:



Alberton, C. L., Cadore, E. L., Pinto, S. S., Tartaruga, M. P., Da Silva, E. M., & Kruel, L. F. M. (2011). Cardiorespiratory, neuromuscular and kinematic responses to stationary running performed in water and on dry land. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 111(6), 1157-1166.

Albright, A., Franz, M., Hornsby, G., Kriska, A., Marrero, D., Ullrich, I., & Verity, L. S. (2000). American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and type 2 diabetes. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 32(7), 1345-1360.

Bhale, D. V., Patil, D. S., & Mahat, R. K. (2014). Study of malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of oxidative stress in obese male individuals. Int J Recent Trends Sci Technol, 10, 51-52.

Blair, S. N., Kohl, H. W., Paffenbarger, R. S., Clark, D. G., Cooper, K. H., & Gibbons, L. W. (1989). Physical fitness and all-cause mortality: a prospective study of healthy men and women. Jama, 262(17), 2395-2401.

Ceylan, H. İ., İrez, G. B., & Saygın, Ö. (2014). Examining of the effects of aerobic dance and step dance exercises on some hematological parameters and blood lipids. Journal of Human Sciences, 11(2), 980-991.

Fisken, A., Waters, D. L., Hing, W. A., Steele, M., & Keogh, J. W. (2014). Perception and responses to different forms of aqua-based exercise among older adults with osteoarthritis. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 8(1), 5.

Gappmaier, E., Lake, W., Nelson, A., & Fisher, A. (2006). Aerobic exercise in water versus walking on land: effects on indices of fat reduction and weight loss of obese women. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 46(4), 564.

Janssen, I., Katzmarzyk, P. T., Ross, R., Leon, A. S., Skinner, J. S., Rao, D., . . . Bouchard, C. (2004). Fitness alters the associations of BMI and waist circumference with total and abdominal fat. Obesity, 12(3), 525-537.

Johnson, N. A., Sachinwalla, T., Walton, D. W., Smith, K., Armstrong, A., Thompson, M. W., & George, J. (2009). Aerobic exercise training reduces hepatic and visceral lipids in obese individuals without weight loss. Hepatology, 50(4), 1105-1112.

Katsura, Y., Yoshikawa, T., Ueda, S.-Y., Usui, T., Sotobayashi, D., Nakao, H., . . . Fujimoto, S. (2010). Effects of aquatic exercise training using water-resistance equipment in elderly. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 108(5), 957-964.

Killgore, G. L. (2012). Deep-water running: a practical review of the literature with an emphasis on biomechanics. The Physician and sportsmedicine, 40(1), 116-126.

Kravitz, L., & Mayo, J. (2006). The physiological effects of aquatic exercise. Int J Med, 332, 305ـ311.

Krishnan, S., Tokar, T. N., Boylan, M. M., Griffin, K., Feng, D., Mcmurry, L., . . . Cooper, J. A. (2015). Zumba® dance improves health in overweight/obese or type 2 diabetic women. American journal of health behavior, 39(1), 109-120.

Letchuman, G., Wan Nazaimoon, W., Wan Mohamad, W., Chandran, L., Tee, G., Jamaiyah, H., . . . Ahmad Faudzi, Y. (2010). Prevalence of diabetes in the Malaysian national health morbidity survey III 2006. Med J Malaysia, 65(3), 180-186.

Meredith-Jones, K., Waters, D., Legge, M., & Jones, L. (2011). Upright water-based exercise to improve cardiovascular and metabolic health: a qualitative review. Complementary therapies in medicine, 19(2), 93-103.

Nagle, E. F., Robertson, R. J., Jakicic, J. J., Otto, A. D., Ranalli, J. R., & Chiapetta, L. B. (2007). Effects of a Combined Aquatic Exercise and Walking in Sedentary Obese Females Undergoing a Behavioral Weight-Loss Intervention. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 1(1), 5.

Nuttamonwarakul, A., Amatyakul, S., & Suksom, D. (2012). Twelve weeks of aqua-aerobic exercise improve health-related physical fitness and glycemic control in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Exercise Physiology, 15(2), 64-71.

Okura, T., Nakata, Y., Ohkawara, K., Numao, S., Katayama, Y., Matsuo, T., & Tanaka, K. (2007). Effects of aerobic exercise on metabolic syndrome improvement in response to weight reduction. Obesity, 15(10), 2478-2484.

Pasetti, S., Gonçalves, A., & Padovani, C. (2012). Continuous training versus interval training in deep water running: health effects for obese women. Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte, 5(1), 3-7.

Pinto, S., Cadore, E., Alberton, C., Zaffari, P., Bagatini, N., Baroni, B., . . . Pinto, R. (2014). Effects of intra-session exercise sequence during water-based concurrent training. International journal of sports medicine, 35(01), 41-48.

Raffaelli, C., Lanza, M., Zanolla, L., & Zamparo, P. (2010). Exercise intensity of head-out water-based activities (water fitness). European Journal of Applied Physiology, 109(5), 829-838.

Rashid, F. H. (2017). Malaysia most obese in region, New Straits Time.

Reilly, T., Cable, N., & Dowzer, C. (2003). The effects of a 6 week land-and water-running training programme on aerobic, anaerobic and muscle strength measures. Journal of sports sciences, 21(4), 333-334.

Rica, R. L., Carneiro, R. M. M., Serra, A. J., Rodriguez, D., Junior, P., Francisco, L., & Bocalini, D. S. (2013). Effects of water‐based exercise in obese older women: Impact of short‐term follow‐up study on anthropometric, functional fitness and quality of life parameters. Geriatrics & gerontology international, 13(1), 209-214.

Saavedra, J., De La Cruz, E., Escalante, Y., & Rodriguez, F. (2007). Influence of a medium-impact aquaerobic program on health-related quality of life and fitness level in healthy adult females. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 47(4), 468.

Sarsan, A., Ardiç, F., Özgen, M., Topuz, O., & Sermez, Y. (2006). The effects of aerobic and resistance exercises in obese women. Clinical rehabilitation, 20(9), 773-782.

Sowers, J. R. (2003). Obesity as a cardiovascular risk factor. The American journal of medicine, 115(8), 37-41.

WHO, I. (2014). Obesity and overweight. Fact sheet. WHO. http://www. mclveganway. org. uk/publications/who_obesity_and_overweight. pdf. Zugegriffen, 26.