Comparison of different exercise modalities in improving metabolic syndrome risk factors among obese females

Norizzati Mohd Idris, Sarina Md Yusof, Maisarah Shari, Raja Nurul Jannat Raja Hussain

Abstract


Background: There is compelling evidence of an obesity phenomenon worldwide and interest in structured physical activity in improvement on overall health. Moderate to high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength resulting from aerobic and strength training appears to be protective against diabetes, CVD, and metabolic syndrome. Aerobic and strength training have also been shown to have beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome risk factors by improving in glucose metabolism, lipids profile, blood pressure, and abdominal obesity via different physiological pathways. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effects of different modes of training on metabolic syndromes risk factors among obese females. A total of 52 participants (22.71± 1.53 years old) participated in this study. Participants were randomly assigned into aerobic (n=13), strength (n=13), concurrent (n=13), and control (n=13) groups. Intervention groups (aerobic, strength and concurrent) engaged in training 3 times weekly for 8 weeks, with approximately one hour per session at moderate intensity (aerobic; 50-70% of heart rate reserve, strength; 50-70% 1 repetition maximum). The concurrent training group spent 30 minutes of aerobic exercise, followed by 30 minutes of strength exercise. Triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), fasting blood glucose (FBG), resting blood pressure (RBP), and waist circumference (WC) were measured in this study. A significant improvement (p < 0.05) was observed in fasting blood glucose (FBG), resting blood pressure (RBP), and waist circumference (WC) in intervention groups. It can be summarized that regular involvement in exercise was associated with a reduction in most metabolic syndrome risk factors among obese females.

Keywords


Metabolic syndrome risk factors, obesity, aerobic, strength, concurrent

Full Text:

PDF

References


Afshin, A., Forouzanfar, M., Reitsma, M., Sur, P., Estep, K., Lee, A., et al. (2017). Health effects of overweight and obesity in 195 countries over 25 years. New England Journal of Medicine, 377(1), 13-27.

Ali, Z. M. I., El-Refay, B. H., & Ali, R. R. (2015). Aerobic exercise training in modulation of aerobic physical fitness and balance of burned patients. Journal of physical therapy science, 27(3), 585-589.

Clark, M. G., Wallis, M. G., Barrett, E. J., Vincent, M. A., Richards, S. M., Clerk, L. H., et al. (2003). Blood flow and muscle metabolism: A focus on insulin action. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism, 284(2), E241-E258.

Cornelissen, V. A., & Fagard, R. H. (2005). Effects of endurance training on blood pressure, blood pressure–regulating mechanisms, and cardiovascular risk factors. Hypertension, 46(4), 667-675.

Eklund, D., Häkkinen, A., Laukkanen, J. A., Balandzic, M., Nyman, K., & Häkkinen, K. (2016). Fitness, body composition and blood lipids following 3 concurrent strength and endurance training modes. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 41(7), 767-774.

Fagard, R. (2006). Exercise is good for your blood pressure: Effects of endurance training and resistance training. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 33(9), 853-856.

George, D., & Mallery, P. (2003). Frequencies. SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference, 11, 20-52.

Grundy, S. M. (2016). Metabolic syndrome update. Trends in cardiovascular medicine, 26(4), 364-373.

Howley, E. T. (2001). Type of activity: Resistance, aerobic and leisure versus occupational physical activity. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 33(6), S364-S369.

Kaur, J. (2014). A comprehensive review on metabolic syndrome. Cardiology research and practice, 2014.

Lira, F. S., Yamashita, A. S., Uchida, M. C., Zanchi, N. E., Gualano, B., Martins, E., et al. (2010). Low and moderate, rather than high intensity strength exercise induces benefit regarding plasma lipid profile. Diabetology & metabolic syndrome, 2(1), 31.

Lovell, G. P., El Ansari, W., & Parker, J. K. (2010). Perceived exercise benefits and barriers of non-exercising female university students in the united kingdom. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 7(3), 784-798.

MacArdle, W. D., Katch, F. I., & Katch, V. L. (2010). Exercise physiology: Nutrition, energy, and human performance: Wolters Kluwer-Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health.

Medicine, A. C. o. S. (2010). Acsm's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (8th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Melam, G. R., Alhusaini, A. A., Buragadda, S., Kaur, T., & Khan, I. A. (2016). Impact of brisk walking and aerobics in overweight women. Journal of physical therapy science, 28(1), 293-297.

Nayak, S., Maiya, A., & Hande, M. (2005). Influence of aerobic treadmill exercise on blood glucose homeostasis in noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients. Indian journal of clinical biochemistry, 20(1), 47-51.

Nigatu, Y. T., Reijneveld, S. A., de Jonge, P., van Rossum, E., & Bültmann, U. (2016). The combined effects of obesity, abdominal obesity and major depression/anxiety on health-related quality of life: The lifelines cohort study. PloS one, 11(2), e0148871.

Nuttamonwarakul, A., Amatyakul, S., & Suksom, D. (2012). Twelve weeks of aqua-aerobic exercise improve health-related physical fitness and glycemic control in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Exercise Physiology, 15(2), 64-71.

Nybo, L., Sundstrup, E., Jakobsen, M. D., Mohr, M., Hornstrup, T., Simonsen, L., et al. (2010). High-intensity training versus traditional exercise interventions for promoting health. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42(10), 1951-1958.

Ogwumike, O., Arowojolu, A., & Sanya, A. (2011). Effects of a 12-week endurance exercise program on adiposity and flexibility of nigerian perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences, 26(2), 199-206.

Okura, T., Nakata, Y., Lee, D., Ohkawara, K., & Tanaka, K. (2005). Effects of aerobic exercise and obesity phenotype on abdominal fat reduction in response to weight loss. International journal of obesity, 29(10), 1259.

Pantelić, S., Milanović, Z., Sporiš, G., & Stojanović-Tošić, J. (2013). Effects of a twelve-week aerobic dance exercises on body compositions parameters in young women. International Journal of Morphology, 31(4), 1243-1250.

Pescatello, L. S., Franklin, B. A., Fagard, R., Farquhar, W. B., Kelley, G. A., & Ray, C. A. (2004). Exercise and hypertension. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 36(3), 533-553.

Pollock, M. L., Franklin, B. A., Balady, G. J., Chaitman, B. L., Fleg, J. L., Fletcher, B., et al. (2000). Resistance exercise in individuals with and without cardiovascular disease. Circulation, 101(7), 828-833.

Ruby, M. B., Dunn, E. W., Perrino, A., Gillis, R., & Viel, S. (2011). The invisible benefits of exercise.

Sigal, R. J., Kenny, G. P., Boulé, N. G., Wells, G. A., Prud'homme, D., Fortier, M., et al. (2007). Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes:a randomized trial effects of aerobic and resistance training on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Annals of internal medicine, 147(6), 357-369.

Strasser, B., Siebert, U., & Schobersberger, W. (2010). Resistance training in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Sports medicine, 40(5), 397-415.

WHO. (2017). Obesity and overweight factsheet from the who. Health.

Wiklund, P. (2016). The role of physical activity and exercise in obesity and weight management: Time for critical appraisal. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 5(2), 151-154.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15282/mohe.v7i2.193